Climate of Egypt

Climate of Egypt

By Robert | Updated Feb. 21, 2024

Egypt Has 3 Different Climatic Zones

Most of Egypt is located in the northeast corner of Africa, while the rest of it lies on the Sinai Peninsula in Asia. Egypt has long shorelines along both the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea. Geographically, Egypt consists of four regions — the Eastern Desert, the Western Desert, the Nile River Valley and Nile Delta, and the Sinai Peninsula. The climate varies across the regions: the north coast experiences mild weather (due to the Mediterranean Sea), while the inland areas are hot and dry (including the deserts in the east and west of the country). The Red Sea coasts are warm but more humid compared to the deserts.

1. The Mild North Coast (The Nile Delta)

Thanks to the Mediterranean Sea, the northern part of Egypt is more humid compared to the south, especially in summers, and this could be quite overwhelming. This makes Alexandria and its surrounding areas the wettest parts of Egypt. However, the yearly precipitation in this region is only around 200 mm (8 in). On other days, the fresh sea breeze makes the weather quite comfortable for travelers visiting Egypt, especially during the hot summer. The two famous cities in this area are Alexandria and Cairo.

Alexandria: Average Temperatures and Precipitation

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Min. (°C) 9 9 11 13 17 20 23 23 21 18 14 11
Max. (°C) 18 19 21 24 27 29 30 30 30 28 24 20
Min. (°F) 48 48 52 55 63 68 73 73 70 64 57 52
Max. (°F) 64 66 70 75 81 84 86 86 86 82 75 68
Rain (mm) 55 30 15 4 1 0 0 0 1 9 30 55
Rain (in) 2.2 1.2 0.6 0.2 0 0 0 0 0 0.4 1.2 2.2
Rain (days) 11 9 6 2 1 0 0 0 0 3 5 10

Cairo: Average Temperatures and Precipitation

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Min (°C) 9 10 12 15 18 20 22 22 21 17 14 10
Max (°C) 19 20 24 28 32 34 35 34 33 29 25 20
Min (°F) 48 50 54 59 64 68 72 72 70 63 57 50
Max (°F) 66 68 75 82 90 93 95 93 91 84 77 68

Unlike Alexandria, Cairo receives limited rainfall, amounting to average yearly precipitation of about 25 mm (1 in). It typically rains only in the winter (from November to February), and the city receives sunshine for about 6 hours a day on average.

2. The Dry and Hot Inland Areas

The remaining part of the country, except for the Red Sea coasts, is classified as the desert region. The climate in this region is hot and dry all year round with limited rainfall and almost permanently clear skies. Be mindful of the low temperatures at night in winter, as it could get chilly without notice. Here is the climate data of Luxor for reference.

Luxor: Average Temperatures

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Min (°C) 9 10 12 15 18 20 22 22 21 17 14 10
Max (°C) 19 20 24 28 32 34 35 34 33 29 25 20
Min (°F) 48 50 54 59 64 68 72 72 70 63 57 50
Max (°F) 66 68 75 82 90 93 95 93 91 84 77 68

3. The Relaxing Red Sea Coasts

Two parts of Egypt border the Red Sea: the Sinai Peninsula and the Red Sea Coast of Africa (for example, Hurghada). Sharm el Sheikh  is the most famous Egyptian city in the Sinai Peninsula. The town lies on the coastal strip along the Red Sea and is a paradise for diving enthusiasts. Sharm el Sheikh is also known as the "City of Peace" due to the many international peace summits it has hosted over the years. The city gets quite hot during summers as the winds blow in from the desert, but it will not be as humid as the coast of the Mediterranean Sea. Here's a look at the detailed weather information of Sharm el Sheikh.  

Sharm el Sheikh: Average Temperatures

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Min (°C) 9 10 12 15 18 20 22 22 21 17 14 10
Max (°C) 19 20 24 28 32 34 35 34 33 29 25 20
Min (°F) 48 50 54 59 64 68 72 72 70 63 57 50
Max (°F) 66 68 75 82 90 93 95 93 91 84 77 68

Hurghada is located on the Red Sea Coast in Africa. The city is surrounded on three sides by desert, which makes it extremely hot. The Red Sea keeps the temperature quite stable due to the high specific heat capacity of water, but it also acts as a humidifier — it is hot and humid there in summer. Therefore, winter is the best time to visit Hurghada to enjoy the exciting water sports on the Red Sea.

Hurghada: Average Temperatures

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Min (°C) 11 11 14 18 22 25 26 26 24 21 17 13
Max (°C) 22 23 25 29 33 35 36 36 34 31 27 23
Min (°F) 52 52 57 64 72 77 79 79 75 70 63 55
Max (°F) 72 73 77 84 91 95 97 97 93 88 81 73

Winter Is the Best Time to Travel to Egypt

To conclude, winter is the best season to visit Egypt, because it won't be too hot or too dry. Since nights can get chilly in the deserts and inland areas, do pack some warm clothes as well. If you would like to visit the north coast (Mediterranean Sea) and the Nile Delta, do carry an umbrella or raincoat. Or, perhaps, you can travel during the summer season (from June to October). The Red Sea coast tends to get very hot in summer and chilly in winter. So, spring (around mid-April) and autumn (around Mid-October) would be the best times for planning a tour.

What to Pack

When packing for your trip to Egypt, always keep in mind that the country is generally dry and hot. Therefore, carry sun protection creams or lotions, light clothes for the daytime, and a jacket or sweater for the chilly evenings if you are traveling in winter. Of course, don't forget to pack your electronic devices (such as mobile phones and chargers), travel documents (passport and visa), and daily medicines and toiletries.

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